Cisco 400-101 ExamCCIE Routing and Switching (v5.0)

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Q441. Refer to the exhibit. 

R2 is unable to access the 172.16.1.0/30 network between R1 and R3. Which option is a possible reason for the failure? 

A. The seed metric for redistributing into RIP on R3 is missing. 

B. The OSPF processes on R2 and R3 are different. 

C. Auto-summary is misconfigured under the RIP process of R3. 

D. The subnet mask on the link between R2 and R3 is smaller than /30. 

E. The wildcard mask on R3 is misconfigured. 

Answer:

Explanation: 

The problem is that RIP requires a seed metric to be specified when redistributing routes into that protocol. A seed metric is a "starter metric" that gives the RIP process a metric it can work with. The OSPF metric of cost is incomprehensible to RIP, since RIP's sole metric is hop count. 

Reference: http://www.thebryantadvantage.com/CCNP%20Certification%20BSCI%20Exam%20Tutoria l%20Route%20Redistribution%20Seed%20Metric.htm 


Q442. Which two statements about logging are true? (Choose two.) 

A. Log messages are sent to the console port by default. 

B. Log messages are displayed in a Telnet session by default. 

C. Interface status changes are logged at the Notification level. 

D. Interface status changes are logged at the Informational level. 

E. System restart messages are logged at the Critical level. 

F. Reload requests are logged at the Notification level. 

Answer: A,C 

Explanation: 

By default, switches send the output from system messages and debug privileged EXEC commands to a logging process. The logging process controls the distribution of logging messages to various destinations, such as the logging buffer, terminal lines, or a UNIX syslog server, depending on your configuration. The process also sends messages to the console. 

Table 29-3 Message Logging Level Keywords 

Level Keyword 

Level 

Description 

Syslog Definition 

emergencies 

System unstable 

LOG_EMERG 

alerts 

Immediate action needed 

LOG_ALERT 

critical 

Critical conditions 

LOG_CRIT 

errors 

Error conditions

LOG_ERR 

warnings 

Warning conditions 

LOG_WARNING 

notifications 

Normal but significant condition 

LOG_NOTICE 

informational 

Informational messages only 

LOG_INFO 

debugging 

Debugging messages 

LOG_DEBUG 

The software generates four other categories of messages: 

. Error messages about software or hardware malfunctions, displayed at levels warnings through emergencies. These types of messages mean that the functionality of the switch is affected. For information on how to recover from these malfunctions, see the system message guide for this release. 

. Output from the debug commands, displayed at the debugging level. Debug commands are typically used only by the Technical Assistance Center. 

Interface up or down transitions and system restart messages, displayed at the notifications level. This message is only for information; switch functionality is not affected. 

. Reload requests and low-process stack messages, displayed at the informational level. This message is only for information; switch functionality is not affected. 

References: http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/switches/lan/catalyst2950/software/release/12-

1_9_ea1/configuration/guide/scg/swlog.html

http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/switches/lan/catalyst2960/software/release/12-2_55_se/configuration/guide/scg_2960/swlog.html 


Q443. Which two statements about ERSPAN are true? (Choose two.) 

A. It supports jumbo frames of up to 9202 bytes. 

B. It adds a 50-byte header to copied Layer 2 Ethernet frames. 

C. It supports packet fragmentation and reassembles the packets. 

D. It adds a 4-byte header to copied Layer 2 Ethernet frames. 

E. Source sessions on an individual switch can use different origin IP addresses. 

Answer: A,B 


Q444. Assume that the following MAC addresses are used for the bridge ID MAC address by four different switches in a network. Which switch will be elected as the spanning-tree root bridge? 

A. SwitchA uses MAC 1000.AA-AA-AA-AA-AA-AA. 

B. SwitchB uses MAC 2000.BB-BB-BB-BB-BB-BB. 

C. SwitchC uses MAC 3000.CC-CC-CC-CC-CC-CC. 

D. SwitchD uses MAC 4000.DD-DD-DD-DD-DD-DD. 

Answer:

Explanation: 

The switch with the highest switch priority (the lowest numerical priority value) is elected as the root switch. If all switches are configured with the default priority (32768), the switch with the lowest MAC address in the VLAN becomes the root switch. 

Reference: http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/switches/lan/catalyst2960/software/release/12-2_53_se/configuration/guide/2960scg/swstp.html 


Q445. DRAG DROP 

Drag and drop each IPv6 neighbor discovery message type on the left to the corresponding description on the right. 

Answer: 


Q446. Refer to the exhibit. 

You have just created a new VRF on PE3. You have enabled debug ip bgp vpnv4 unicast updates on PE1, and you can see the route in the debug, but not in the BGP VPNv4 table. 

Which two statements are true? (Choose two.) 

A. VPNv4 is not configured between PE1 and PE3. 

B. address-family ipv4 vrf is not configured on PE3. 

C. After you configure route-target import 999:999 for a VRF on PE3, the route will be accepted. 

D. PE1 will reject the route due to automatic route filtering. 

E. After you configure route-target import 999:999 for a VRF on PE1, the route will be accepted. 

Answer: D,E 

Explanation: 

The route target extended community for VPLS auto-discovery defines the import and export policies that a VPLS instance uses. The export route target sets an extended community attribute number that is appended to all routes that are exported from the VPLS instance. The import route target value sets a filter that determines the routes that are accepted into the VPLS instance. Any route with a value in its import route target contained in its extended attributes field matching the value in the VPLS instance’s import route target are accepted. Otherwise the route is rejected. 


Q447. Refer to the exhibit. 

Which option is the most likely explanation of the duplicate address message logged? 

A. HSRP misconfiguration 

B. a PC with IP of 10.10.1.1 

C. spanning-tree-loop 

D. a hardware problem 

Answer:


Q448. Refer to the exhibit. 

Why is the router not accessible via Telnet on the GigabitEthernet0 management interface? 

A. The wrong port is being used in the telnet-acl access list. 

B. The subnet mask is incorrect in the telnet-acl access list. 

C. The log keyword needs to be removed from the telnet-acl access list. 

D. The access class needs to have the vrf-also keyword added. 

Answer:

Explanation: 

The correct command should be “access-class telnet-acl in vrf-also”. If you do not specify the vrf-also keyword, incoming Telnet connections from interfaces that are part of a VRF are rejected. 


Q449. Which statement is true about VPLS? 

A. MPLS is not required for VPLS to work. 

B. VPLS carries packets as Layer 3 multicast. 

C. VPLS has been introduced to address some shortcomings of OTV. 

D. VPLS requires an MPLS network. 

Answer:

Explanation: 

VPLS uses MPLS labels so an MPLS network is required. VPLS MPLS packets have a two-label stack. The outer label is used for normal MPLS forwarding in the service provider's network. If BGP is used to establish the VPLS, the inner label is allocated by a PE as part of a label block. If LDP is used, the inner label is a virtual circuit ID assigned by LDP when it first established a mesh between the participating PEs. Every PE keeps track of assigned inner label, and associates these with the VPLS instance. 

Reference: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virtual_Private_LAN_Service 


Q450. Refer to the exhibit. 

Why is the prefix 1.1.1.1/32 not present in the routing table of R1? 

A. There is a duplicate router ID. 

B. There is a subnet mask mismatch on Ethernet0/0. 

C. The router LSA has an invalid checksum. 

D. There is an OSPF network type mismatch that causes the advertising router to be unreachable. 

Answer:

Explanation: 

A common problem when using Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is routes in the database don't appear in the routing table. In most cases OSPF finds a discrepancy in the database so it doesn't install the route in the routing table. Often, you can see the Adv Router is not-reachable message (which means that the router advertising the LSA is not reachable through OSPF) on top of the link-state advertisement (LSA) in the database when this problem occurs. Here is an example: 

Adv Router is not-reachable 

LS agE. 418 

Options: (No TOS-capability, DC) 

LS TypE. Router 

Links Link State ID. 172.16.32.2 

Advertising Router: 172.16.32.2 

LS Seq Number: 80000002 

Checksum: 0xFA63 

Length: 60 

Number of Links: 3 

There are several reasons for this problem, most of which deal with mis-configuration or a broken topology. When the configuration is corrected the OSPF database discrepancy goes away and the routes appear in the routing table. 

Reason 1: Network Type Mismatch 

Let's use the following network diagram as an example: 

R4-4K 

R1-7010 

interface Loopback0 

ip address 172.16.33.1 255.255.255.255 

interface Serial2 

ip address 172.16.32.1 255.255.255.0 

ip ospf network broadcast 

router ospf 20 

network 172.16.0.0 0.0.255.255 area 0 

interface Loopback0 

ip address 172.16.30.1 255.255.255.255 

interface Serial1/0 

ip address 172.16.32.2 255.255.255.0 

clockrate 64000 

router ospf 20 

network 172.16.0.0 0.0.255.255 area 0 

R4-4K(4)# show ip ospf interface serial 2 

Serial2 is up, line protocol is up 

Internet Address 172.16.32.1/24, Area 0 

Process ID 20, Router ID 172.16.33.1, Network Type BROADCAST, Cost: 64 

Transmit Delay is 1 sec, State DR, Priority 1 

Designated Router (ID) 172.16.33.1, Interface address 172.16.32.1 

Backup Designated router (ID) 172.16.32.2, Interface address 172.16.32.2 

Timer intervals configured, Hello 10, Dead 40, Wait 40, Retransmit 5 

Hello due in 00:00:08 

Neighbor Count is 1, Adjacent neighbor count is 1 

Adjacent with neighbor 172.16.32.2 (Backup Designated Router) 

Suppress hello for 0 neighbor(s) 

R1-7010(5)# show ip ospf interface serial 1/0 

Serial1/0 is up, line protocol is up 

Internet Address 172.16.32.2/24, Area 0 

Process ID 20, Router ID 172.16.32.2, Network Type POINT_TO_POINT, Cost: 64 

Transmit Delay is 1 sec, State POINT_TO_POINT, 

Timer intervals configured, Hello 10, Dead 40, Wait 40, Retransmit 5 

Hello due in 00:00:02 

Neighbor Count is 1, Adjacent neighbor count is 1 

Adjacent with neighbor 172.16.33.1 

Suppress hello for 0 neighbor(s) 

As you can see above, Router R4-4K is configured for broadcast, and Router R1-7010 is configured for point-to-point. This kind of network type mismatch makes the advertising router unreachable. 

R4-4K(4)# show ip ospf database router 172.16.32.2 

Adv Router is not-reachable 

LS agE. 418 

Options: (No TOS-capability, DC) 

LS TypE. Router Links 

Link State ID. 172.16.32.2 

Advertising Router: 172.16.32.2 

LS Seq Number: 80000002 

Checksum: 0xFA63 

Length: 60 

Number of Links: 3 

Link connected to: another Router (point-to-point) 

(Link ID) Neighboring Router ID. 172.16.33.1 

(Link Data) Router Interface address: 172.16.32.2 

Number of TOS metrics: 0 

TOS 0 Metrics: 64 

Link connected to: a Stub Network 

(Link ID) Network/subnet number: 172.16.32.0 

(Link Data) Network Mask: 255.255.255.0 

Number of TOS metrics: 0 

TOS 0 Metrics: 64 

R1-7010(5)# show ip ospf database router 172.16.33.1 

Adv Router is not-reachable 

LS agE. 357 

Options: (No TOS-capability, DC) 

LS TypE. Router Links 

Link State ID. 172.16.33.1 

Advertising Router: 172.16.33.1 

LS Seq Number: 8000000A 

Checksum: 0xD4AA 

Length: 48 

Number of Links: 2 

Link connected to: a Transit Network 

(Link ID) Designated Router address: 172.16.32.1 

(Link Data) Router Interface address: 172.16.32.1 

Number of TOS metrics: 0 

TOS 0 Metrics: 64 

You can see that for subnet 172.16.32.0/24, Router R1-7010 is generating a point-to-point link and Router R4-4K is generating a transit link. This creates a discrepancy in the link-state database, which means no routes are installed in the routing table. 

R1-7010(5)# show ip route 

172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 3 subnets, 2 masks 

C 172.16.32.0/24 is directly connected, Serial1/0 

C 172.16.30.1/32 is directly connected, Loopback0 

Solution 

To solve this problem, configure both routers for the same network type. You can either change the network type of Router R1-7010 to broadcast, or change Router R4-4K's serial interface to point-to-point. 

Reference: http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/docs/ip/open-shortest-path-first-ospf/7112-26.html 


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